We just published a paper showing pollinators experienced higher levels of reproductive success in isolated trees at a fig species’ expanding range margin, in spite of there being lower numbers of pollinators in these isolated trees (half as many) as there were in larger populations of fig trees. This increase in reproductive success was partly a consequence of parasitoid release (Mackay KD, Gross CL, Ryder DS., Increased reproductive success through parasitoid release at a range margin: Implications for range shifts induced by climate change. J Biogeogr. 2020;00:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13795).

Ficus rubiginosa female-stage fig with pollinator wasps, Pleistodontes imperialis, entering the narrow opening or ostiole of the fig syconium to pollinate some of the enclosed female flowers and lay their eggs within others. One wasp has already entered, her torn-off wings left sticking out of the ostiole, as another one enters. A pollinator parasitoid, Philotrypesis sp., is sitting on the leaf edge at the lower right. She might be about to lay her own eggs after the pollinators have laid theirs.

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